Atomic Structure

atomic structure

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The earth in which we live in today, is great, we can’t even begin to imagine how wonderful this earth is, because we may not be able to understand how it was created.

In today’s article, we are going to talk about atomic structures, in order to be more in tune with the environment around us. The nucleus is the center of an atom, and in it, you’ll find the protons and neutrons.

Atoms are also composed of electrons, which are held around the nucleus in an atom’s orbit. Electrons have a negative charge -1, while protons have a positive charge +1, neutrons do not have a charge.

One atomic mass unit (amu) or one Dalton, in atoms, refers to the fact that protons and neutrons have the same approximate mass, which is:

1 atomic mass unit 1.660540 x 10-27 kg
neutron 1.674929 x 10-27 kg
proton 1.672623 x 10-27 kg
electron 9.109390 x 10-31 kg

The foundation of chemistry are atoms, which are the basis for everything we see today on this universe. Matter is composed of atoms, gases have atoms spread out, while solids have densely packed atoms.

In the periodic table, there are almost 120 known elements and chemists as well as physicists are trying to make new ones daily. Each elements have atoms, which differ in the number of electrons, protons and neutrons. An atomic number is assigned to every element, which is unique; the atomic number tells the number of protons that exist in the atom of every element.

The smallest particle of an element is an atom, and they are the ones that enter into a chemical combination, during a chemical reaction, that takes place between elements. The electrons of the atom and all the other particles move all the time, the energy emitted by these particles and their motion, keeps them from crashing into each other.

Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus of an atom, they also flow in layers called shells; to be able to picture the flow of electrons around the nucleus of an atom, the Bohr model was discovered. The Bohr models, similar to planets orbiting around the sun, shows the electrons orbiting around the nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons, in a circular motion.

A different energy level is found at each electron shell, the electrons that are farther from the nucleus have a higher energy, than those closest, to the nucleus. The symbol n and a number is assigned to each of the shells, so for example 1n would be assigned to the shell closest to the nucleus.

Electrons move between shells, by absorbing or releasing an amount of energy, which corresponds, to the difference in energy between the shells. If an electrons absorbs energy from a photon, it will move to a higher-energy shell; however, if it drops its energy level, by releasing energy in the form of heat, then it will drop back down an energy shell.

When electrons orbit around the nucleus, they start to fill up the energy shells, from the inside out of the atom. The lower-energy shells are filled up first with electrons, once they are filled, electrons can begin to fill the next level energy shell. The shell 1n, which is the shell closest to the nucleus, can hold two electrons, eight electrons can be held by shell 2n and eighteen electrons can be filled in shell 3n.

Thank you for reading this article!!!