Atomic Structure – Acids and Bases

acids and bases

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In chemistry, all the elements are very important, because they play an important role in our world, and they are key to our creation.

In today’s article, we are going to talk about acids, in order to understand how, this element, affects our lives. An acid would donate protons or hydrogen ions, it would also donate electrons, according to the three main definitions of acids. For example in water, an acid contains a hydrogen atom bonded to it, but upon release of this hydrogen H+ a cation and an anion is created as a result of this. The pH scale is used to tell how acidic a substance is, the pH scale ranges from 0 to 14; solutions with lower pH are acidic.

In a solution, the pH would be low, if hydrogen ions produced by an acid, have a higher concentration making the solution acidic. Acids are defined based on three theories, the Arrhenius theory, the Brønsted-Lowry theory and the Lewis theory. All three definitions are valid, some more then others, but they are still very valid.

According to Arrhenius, an acid is a substance that dissociate to produce, hydrogen H+ ions in water, When the concentration of hydronium ions H+ or H3O+ increases when added to water by a substance, according to Arrhenius theory, it is said that the substance is an acid. Acids liberate hydrogen by reacting with some metals, such as iron; acid also react with bases and form salt. When a substance yields an excess of hydrogen ions, when it is dissolved in water, it is then said that such substance is an acid

When a material is able to be a proton donor, then according to Brønsted-Lowry Acid it is said that this material is an acid. An Acid would make water taste sour, and it can change the color of certain indicators, in a substance. According to the Lewis theory, acids are substances, which are able to accept a lone pair of electrons.

Acids are involved in certain chemical reactions, by promoting them, in a process called acid catalysis. Sulfuric, nitric, hydrochloric and phosphoric acids are some examples of acids, and carboxylic acid, sulfuric acid and phenol groups are examples of organic compounds, which contain acid.

Hydrogen ions in acids have three important things, which we must understand; first, not all hydrogen atoms that are in a substance are capable of dissociating. CH3 is non acidic, in acetic acid; it is important for a chemist to know, which hydrogen atoms will be able to dissociate in substance.

At different degrees, hydrogen is able to dissociate; strong acids dissociate in a solution 100% of time effectively. Organic acids also known as weak acid dissociate only a fraction of it in a solution.

Polyprotic acids are acids, which have more than one dis-sociable hydrogen, example of this acids are: H2SO4 and H3PO4. The polyprotic acid is able to donate more then one proton.

Another type of acid is the monoprotic acid, which is capable of donating just one proton. Ampholytes acids are intermediate forms of polyprotic acids and they are able to accept or lose protons. Compounds which when dissolved in water, can act as either a acid or a base, then these compounds are known, as Ampholytes, which are also amphoteric compounds.

It is important to learn about acids because they are everywhere, and it can never hurt to know what we could accomplish with acids.

Thank you for reading this article!!!